ⓘ Fraunce, offeecially the French Republic, is a kintra wi territory in wastren Europe an several owerseas regions an territories. The European, or metropolitan, ..

Philippe o Fraunce, Duke o Anjou

Philippe o Fraunce, Son o Fraunce, Duke o Anjou wis the second son o King Louis XV o Fraunce an Marie Leszczyńska. He wis styled Duke o Anjou frae birth. A sickly child, he wis raised bi women with intensely superstitious beliefs, the women mixed in earth frae the grave o Saunt Medard with his food; the child wis gien so much earth that he died o organ failure. He wis buried at the Ryal Basilica o Saunt Denis outside Paris having died at Versailles. His teetle reverted back tae the croun o Fraunce. His elder brither Louis, wis "Dauphin o Fraunce" an thus Philippe ranked behind him an then ...

Nicolas Henri o Fraunce, Duke o Orléans

Nicolas Henri o Fraunce, Duke o Orléans, Son o Fraunce wis the second son an fourth child o Henry IV o Fraunce an Marie de Medici. Although he is commonly gien the first name Nicolas or Nicolas Henri, he was never solemnly baptised an so niver haed a Christian name.

Meurthe-et-Moselle

Meurthe-et-Moselle is a depairtment in the region Lorraine o Fraunce, named efter the Meurthe an Moselle rivers.

Marne

Marne is a depairtment in north-eastren Fraunce named efter the river Marne which flaws throu the depairtment.

                                     

ⓘ Fraunce

Fraunce, offeecially the French Republic, is a kintra wi territory in wastren Europe an several owerseas regions an territories. The European, or metropolitan, aurie o Fraunce extends frae the Mediterranean Sea tae the Inglis Channel an the North Sea, an frae the Rhine tae the Atlantic Ocean. Owerseas Fraunce include French Guiana on the Sooth American continent an several island territories in the Atlantic, Pacific an Indie oceans. Fraunce spans 643.801 square kilometre an haed a tot population o awmaist 67 million fowk as o Januar 2017. It is a unitary semi-presidential republic wi the caipital in Paris, the kintras lairgest ceety an main cultural an commercial centre. Ither major urban centres include Marseille, Lyon, Lille, Nice, Toulouse an Bordeaux.

In the Airn Age, whit is nou metropolitan Fraunce wis inhaibitit bi the Gauls, a Celtic fowk. The aurie wis annexed in 51 BC bi Roum, which held Gaul till 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region an formed the Kinrick o Fraunce. Fraunce emerged as a major European pouer in the Late Middle Ages, wi its veectory in the Hunder Years War 1337 tae 1453 strenthenin state-biggin an poleetical centralisation. During the Renaissance, French cultur flourished and a global colonial empire wis established, which bi the 20t century wad be the seicont lairgest in the warld. The 16t century wis dominatit bi releegious ceevil wars atween Catholics an Protestants Huguenots. Fraunce acame Europes dominant cultural, poleetical, an militar power unner Louis XIV. In the late 18t century, the French Revolution owerthrew the absolute monarchy, established ane o modren historys earliest republics, an saw the draftin o the Declaration o the Richts o Man an o the Ceetizen, which expresses the naitions ideals tae this day.

In the 19t century Napoleon teuk pouer an established the First French Empire, whase subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the coorse o continental Europe. Follaein the collapse o the Empire, Fraunce endured a tumultuous succession o govrenments culminatin wi the establishment o the French Third Republic in 1870. Fraunce wis a major pairteecipant in the First Warld War, frae which it emerged victorious, an wis ane o the Allied Pouers in the Seicont Warld War, but came unner occupation bi the Axis Pouers in 1940. Follaein leeberation in 1944, a Fowert Republic wis established an later dissolved in the coorse o the Algerian War. The Fift Republic, led bi Charles de Gaulle, wis formed in 1958 an remeens tae this day. Algerie an nearly aw the ither colonies acame independent in the 1960s wi minimal controversy an teepically reteened close economic an militar connections wi Fraunce.

Fraunce haes lang been a global centre o airt, science, an filosofie. It hosts Europes fowerth-lairgest nummer o cultural UNESCO Warld Heritage Steids an receives aroond 83 million foreign tourists annually, the maist o ony kintra in the warld. Fraunce is a developit kintra wi the warlds saxt-lairgest economy bi nominal GDP an nint-lairgest bi purchasin pouer parity. In terms o aggregate hoosehauld wealth, it ranks fowert in the warld. Fraunce performs well in internaitional rankins o eddication, heal care, life expectancy, an human development. Fraunce remeens a great pouer in the warld, bein ane o the five permanent members o the Unitit Naitions Security Cooncil wi the pouer tae veto an offeecial nuclear-wappen state. Its a leadin member state o the European Union an the Eurozone. It is a member o the Group o 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO, Organisation for Economic Co-operation an Development OECD, the Warld Tred Organisation WTO, an La Francophonie an aa.

                                     

1. Etymology

Oreeginally appleed tae the whole Frankish Empire, the name "Fraunce" comes frae the Laitin Francia, or "kintra o the Franks". Modren Fraunce is still named the day Francia in Italian an Spaingie, Frankreich in German an Frankrijk in Dutch, aw o which hae the same historical meanin.

Thare are various theories as tae the origin o the name Frank. Follaein the precedents o Edward Gibbon an Jacob Grimm, the name o the Franks haes been airtit wi the wird frank free in Inglis. It haes been suggestit that the meanin o "free" wis adoptit acause, efter the conquest o Gaul, anerly Franks war free o taxation. Anither theory is that it is derived frae the Proto-Germanic wird frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the thrawin axe o the Franks wis kent as a francisca. Houever, it haes been determined that thir wappens war named acause o thair uise bi the Franks, nae the ither wey aroond.

                                     

2.1. History Antiquity

In 600 BC, Ionie Greeks, oreeginatin frae Phocaea, foondit the colony o Massalia present-day Marseille, on the shores o the Mediterranean Sea. This maks it Fraunces auldest ceety. At the same time, some Gallic Celtic tribes penetratit pairts o the current territory o Fraunce, an this occupation spread tae the rest o Fraunce atween the 5t an 3rd century BC. The concept o Gaul emerged at that time; it corresponds tae the territories o Celtic settlement rangin atween the Rhine, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees an the Mediterranean.

Aroond 125 BC, the sooth o Gaul wis conquered bi the Romans, wha cried this region Provincia Nostra "Oor Province", which ower time evolved intae the name Provence in French. Julius Caesar conquered the remainder o Gaul an owercame a revolt carried oot bi the Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix in 52 BC. Gaul wis dividit bi Augustus intae Roman provinces. Mony ceeties war foondit during the Gallo-Roman period, includin Lugdunum present-day Lyon, which is conseedert the caipital o the Gauls.

Frae the 250s tae the 280s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis wi its fortified borders bein attacked on several occasions bi barbarians. Nivertheless, the situation improved in the first hauf o the 4t century, which wis a period o revival an prosperity for Roman Gaul. In 312, the emperor Constantin I convertit tae Christianity. Subsequently, Christians, wha haed been persecutit till then, increased rapidly athort the entire Roman Empire. But, frae the beginnin o the 5t century, the Barbarian Invasions resumed, an Germanic tribes, sic as the Vandals, Suebi an Alans crossed the Rhine an settled in Gaul, Spain an ither pairts o the collapsin Roman Empire.

                                     

2.2. History Middle Ages

At the end o the Antiquity period, auncient Gaul wis dividit intae several Germanic kinricks an a remeenin Gallo-Roman territory, kent as the Kinrick o Syagrius. Simultaneously, Celtic Britons, fleein the Anglo-Saxon settlement o Breetain, settled the wastren pairt o Armorica. As a result, the Armorican peninsula wis renamed Brittany, Celtic cultur wis revived an independent petty kinricks arose in this region. The pagan Franks, frae that the auncient name o "Francie" wis derived, oreeginally settled the north pairt o Gaul, but unner Clovis I conquered maist o the ither kinricks in northren an central Gaul. The Franks embraced the Christian Gallo-Roman cultur an auncient Gaul wis eventually renamed Francia "Laund o the Franks". The Germanic Franks adoptit Romanic leids, except in northren Gaul whaur Roman settlements war less dense an whaur Germanic leids emerged. Clovis made Paris his caipital an established the Merovingian dynasty, but his kinrick wad nae survive his daith. The Franks treatit laund purely as a private possession an dividit it amang thair heirs, sae fower kinricks emerged frae Cloviss: Paris, Orléans, Soissons, an Rheims. The last Merovingian keengs lost pouer tae thair mayors o the palace heid o hoosehauld. Ane mayor o the palace, Charles Martel, defeatit an Islamic invasion o Gaul at the Battle o Tours 732 an earned respect an pouer within the Frankish kinricks. His son, Pepin the Short, seized the croun o Francie frae the waikened Merovingians an foondit the Carolingian dynasty. Pepins son, Charlemagne, reunitit the Frankish kinricks an biggit a vast empire athort Wastren an Central Europe.

Proclaimed Haly Roman Emperor bi Pape Leo III an sicweys establishin in earnest the French govrenments langtime historical association wi the Catholic Kirk, Charlemagne tried tae revive the Wastren Roman Empire an its cultural grandeur. Charlemagnes son, Louis I emperor 814–840, keepit the empire unitit; houiver, this Carolingian Empire wad nae survive his daith. In 843, unner the Treaty o Verdun, the empire wis dividit atween Louis three sons, wi East Francia gangin tae Louis the German, Middle Francia tae Lothair I, an Wast Francia tae Charles the Bald. Wast Francia approximatit the aurie occupied bi, an wis the precursor, tae modren Fraunce.

The Carolingian dynasty ruled Fraunce till 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke o Fraunce an Coont o Paris, wis crouned Keeng o the Franks. His stryndants - the Capetians, the Hoose o Valois, an the Hoose o Bourbon - progressively unified the kintra throu wars an dynastic inheritance intae the Kinrick o Fraunce, which wis fully declared in 1190 bi Philip II Augustus.

Lik the rest o Europe, Fraunce wis struck bi the Black Daith; hauf o the 17 million population o Fraunce deed.



                                     

2.3. History Early modren period

The French Renaissance saw a spectacular cultural development an the first staundartisation o the French leid, which wad acome the offeecial leid o Fraunce an the leid o Europes aristocracy. French explorers, sic as Jacques Cartier or Samuel de Champlain, claimed lands in the Americas for Fraunce, pavin the wey for the expansion o the First French colonial empire. The rise o Protestantism in Europe led Fraunce tae a ceevil war kent as the French Wars o Releegion, whaur, in the maist notorious incident, thoosands o Huguenots war murthert in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre o 1572. The Wars o Releegion war endit bi Henry IVs Edict o Nantes, which granted some freedom o releegion tae the Huguenots.

The monarchy reached its peak during the 17t century an the reign o Louis XIV. Fraunce obteened mony owerseas possessions in Americae, Africae an Asie. Louis XIV. amang mony things, revoked the Edict o Nantes, forcin thoosands o Huguenots intae exile. Unner Louis XV, Louis XIVs grandson, Fraunce lost New Fraunce an maist o its Indie possessions efter its defeat in the Seiven Years War, which endit in 1763. An unpopular king, Louis XVs waik rule, his ill-advised financial, poleetical an militar deceesions – as well as the debauchery o his coort– discreditit the monarchy, which arguably paved the wey for the French Revolution 15 year efter his daith.

                                     

2.4. History Late modren period

Facin financial truibles, Louis XVI summoned the Estates-General gatherin the three Estates o the realm in Mey 1789 tae propose solutions tae his govrenment. As it came tae an impasse, the representatives o the Third Estate formed intae a Naitional Assembly, signallin the ootbreak o the French Revolution. Fearin that the king wad suppress the newly creatit Naitional Assembly, insurgents stormed the Bastille on 14 Julie 1789, a date which wad acome Fraunces Naitional Day. The absolute monarchy wis subsequently replaced bi a constitutional monarchy. While Louis XVI, as a constitutional keeng, enjoyed popularity amang the population, his disastrous flicht tae Varennes seemed tae juistify rumours he haed tied his howps o poleetical salvation tae the prospects o foreign invasion. His credibility wis sae deeply unnermined that the aboleetion o the monarchy an establishment o a republic acame an increasin possibeelity.

Louis XVI wis convictit o traison an guillotined in 1793. Facin increasin pressur frae European monarchies, internal guerrilla wars an coonterrevolutions sic as the War in the Vendée, the young Republic fell intae the Reign o Terror. Atween 1793 an 1794, atween 16.000 an 40.000 fowk war executit. In Wastren Fraunce, the ceevil war atween the Bleus "Blues", supporters o the Revolution an the Blancs "Whites", supporters o the Monarchy lastit frae 1793 tae 1796 an led tae the loss o atween 200.000 an 450.000 lives. Baith foreign airmies an French coonter-revolutionaries war crushed an the French Republic survived.

Efter a short-lived govrenmental scheme, Napoleon Bonaparte seized control o the Republic in 1799 acomin First Consul an later Emperor o the French Empire 1804–1814/1815. As a continuation o the wars sparked bi the European monarchies against the French Republic, chyngin sets o European Coaleetions declared wars on Napoleons Empire. His airmies conquered maist o continental Europe wi swift victories sic as the battles o Jena-Auerstadt or Austerlitz. He redrew the European poleetical cairt, while members o the Bonaparte faimily war appyntit as monarchs in some o the newly established kinricks. Thir victories led tae the warldwide expansion o French revolutionary ideals an reforms, sic as the Metric seestem, the Napoleonic Code an the Declaration o the Richts o Man. Efter the catastrophic Roushie campaign, an the ensuin uprisin o European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon wis defeatit an the Bourbon monarchy restored. Aboot a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars.

Efter his brief return frae exile, Napoleon wis feenally defeatit in 1815 at the Battle o Waterloo, the monarchy wis re-established 1815–1830, wi new constitutional leemitations. The discreditit Bourbon dynasty wis owerthrawn bi the Julie Revolution o 1830, which established the constitutional Julie Monarchy, which lastit till 1848, when the French Seicont Republic wis proclaimed, in the wake o the European Revolutions o 1848. In 1852, the preses o the French Republic, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, Napoleon Is neffae, wis proclaimed emperor o the seicont Empire, as Napoleon III. Napoleon III wis unseatit follaein defeat in the Franco-Proushie War o 1870 an his regime wis replaced bi the Third Republic.

                                     

2.5. History Contemporar history

Fraunce wis a member o the Triple Entente when Warld War I broke oot. A smaw pairt o Northren Fraunce wis occupied, but Fraunce an its allies emerged victorious against the Central Pouers at a tremendous human an material cost. Warld War I left 1.4 million French sodgers deid, 4% o its population.

In 1940 Fraunce wis invadit an occupied bi Nazi Germany. Metropolitan Fraunce wis dividit intae a German occupation zone in the north an Vichy Fraunce, a newly established authoritarian regime collaboratin wi Germany, in the sooth, while Free Fraunce, the govrenment-in-exile led bi Charles de Gaulle, wis set up in Lunnon. Frae 1942 tae 1944, aboot 160.000 French ceetizens, includin aroond 75.000 Jews, war deportit tae daith camps an concentration camps in Germany an Poland. On 6 Juin 1944 the Allies invaded Normandy an in August thay invadit Provence. Ower the follaein year the Allies an the French Resistance emerged victorious ower the Axis pouers an French sovereignty wis restored wi the establishment o the Proveesional Govrenment o the French Republic GPRF.

The GPRF laid the grundwark for a new constitutional order that resultit in the Fowert Republic, which saw spectacular economic growthe les Trente Glorieuses. Fraunce wis ane o the foondin members o NATO 1949. Fraunce attemptit tae regain control o French Indocheenae but wis defeatit bi the Viet Minh in 1954 at the climactic Battle o Dien Bien Phu. Anerly months later, Fraunce faced anither anti-colonialist conflict in Algerie. Tortur and illegal executions war perpetratit bi baith sides an the debate ower whether or nae tae keep control o Algerie, then hame tae ower ane million European settlers, wracked the kintra an nearly led tae a coup an ceevil war. In 1958, the waik an unstable Fowert Republic gae wey tae the Fift Republic, which includit a strenthened Presidency. In the latter role, Charles de Gaulle managed tae keep the kintra thegether while takin steps tae end the war. The Algerie War wis concludit wi the Évian Accords in 1962 that led tae Algerie unthirldom.

In the context o the Cauld War, de Gaulle pursued a policy o "naitional unthirldom" taewart the Wastren an Eastren blocs. Tae this end, he widrew frae NATOs militar integratit command, he launched a nuclear development programme an made Fraunce the fowert nuclear pouer.

Syne the 1995 Paris Métro an RER bombins, Fraunce haes been sporadically targetit bi Islamist organisations, notably the Charlie Hebdo attack in Januar 2015 which provoked the lairgest public rallies in French history, gatherin 4.4 million fowk, the November 2015 Paris attacks which resultit in 130 daiths, the deidliest attack on French sile syne Warld War II, an the deidliest in the European Union syne the Madrid train bombins in 2004 an the 2016 Nice attack which caused 87 daiths during Bastille Day celebrations.



                                     

3. Geografie

The European pairt o Fraunce is cried Metropolitan Fraunce an it is locatit in ane o the occidental ends o Europe. It is bordered bi the North Sea in the north, the Inglis Channel in the northwast, the Atlantic Ocean in the wast an the Mediterranean sea in the sootheast. It borders Belgium an Luxembourg in the northeast, Germany and Swisserland in the east, Italy an Monaco in the sootheast, an Spain an Andorra in the sooth an soothwast. The borders in the sooth an in the east o the kintra are moontain ranges: the Pyrenees, the Alps an the Jura, the mairch in the east is frae the Rhine river, while the mairch in the north an the northeast melts in na naitural elements.

Fraunce haes Owerseas regions athort the warld. Thir territories hae varyin statuses in the territorial admeenistration o Fraunce an are locatit:

  • In the Indie Ocean: Réunion island, Mayotte, Scaitert Islands in the Indie Ocean, Crozet Islands, St. Paul an Amsterdam islands.
  • In the Atlantic Ocean: Saunt Pierre an Miquelon an, in the Antilles: Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saunt Martin an Saunt Barthélemy.
  • In the Antarctic: Adélie Land.
  • In the Paceefic Ocean: French Polynesie, the special collectivity o New Caledon, Wallis an Futuna an Clipperton Island.
  • In the Indie Ocean: Kerguelen Islands.
  • In Sooth Americae: French Guiana.

Fraunce haes laund borders wi Brazil an Suriname in French Guiana an wi the Kinrick o the Netherlands throu the French pairt o Saunt Martin.

At 4.810.45 metre 15.782 ft abuin sea level, the heichest pynt in Wastren Europe, Mont Blanc, is situatit in the Alps on the French an Italian border. Fraunce haes extensive river seestems sic as the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, an the Rhone an aa, which divides the Massif Central frae the Alps an flows intae the Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue. Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.

Maist o the law-lyin auries o metropolitan Fraunce excludin Corsica are locatit in the oceanic climate zone, Cfb, Cwb an Cfc in the Köppen clessification. A smaw pairt o the territory borderin the mediterranean basin lies in the Csa an Csb zones.

Fraunce wis ane o the first kintras tae creaut an environment meenistry, in 1971. Awtho it is ane o the maist industrialised kintras in the warld, Fraunce is ranked anerly 17t bi carbon dioxide emeessions, behind less populous naitions sic as Canadae or Australie. This is acause Fraunce decidit tae invest in nuclear pouer follaein the 1973 ile crisis, which nou accoonts for 75% o its electricity production an results in less pollution. Forests accoont for 28% o Fraunces laund aurie, an are some o the maist diverse in Europe, comprisin mair nor 140 species o trees. Thare are nine naitional pairks an 46 naitural pairks in France.



                                     
  • The Fraunce naitional fitbaw team French: Équipe de France represents Fraunce in internaitional fitbaw. It is fieldit bi the French Fitbaa Federation
  • Keeng o Fraunce frae 1589 tae 1610. Louis XIII o Fraunce 27 September 1601 14 Mey 1643 mairit Anne o Austrick an haed issue Elisabeth o Fraunce 22 November
  • Fraunce haes a lot o Owerseas Territories Territoires d Outre - Mer unner its rule. Thare is a French Ministry o the Owerseas Territories an departments
  • Louis o Fraunce Dauphin o Fraunce Son o Fraunce Louis Ferdinand September 1729 20 December 1765 wis the eldest son an hier o Keeng Louis XV niver
  • Henriette o Fraunce Daughter o Fraunce Anne Henriette 14 August 1727 10 Februar 1752 was a French princess, the twin o Louise Élisabeth o Fraunce and
  • le bien aimé wis a monarch o the Hoose o Bourbon who ruled as Keeng o Fraunce an Navarre frae 1 September 1715 till his daith. He succeeded his great - grandfaither
  • Louis XVI Louis Auguste 23 August 1754 21 Januar 1793 wis King o Fraunce an Navarre frae 1774 till 1791, efter which he wis subsequently Keeng o
  • Roi - Soleil wis a monarch o the Hoose o Bourbon who ruled as Keeng o Fraunce an Navarre frae 1643 till his daith. His reign o 72 year an 110 days is
  • Marie Clotilde o Fraunce Dochter o Fraunce Marie Adélaïde Clotilde Xavière 23 September 1759 7 Mairch 1802 kent as Clotilda in Italy, wis Queen